• Nopita Trihastutie Widya Kartika University
Keywords: Religiosity, Spirituality, Frames, Commodification


A secular state, like United States of America, guarantees the private right of individual to express their religious ideas in public. In the era of media, religious broadcasting serves as a mean for individuals to express their private rights of speech and act based on their faith in public. By taking prosperity televangelical broadcasts as the main object, this article examines several aspects that are critical for understanding the religiousness and the secularization of American televangelism. This article provides an overview of the socio circumstances and movement roots of evangelism, examines the religiosity and spirituality frames in televangelism, and identifies the commodification of the religiosity and spirituality frames.


Download data is not yet available.


Adeleye, F. (2014). The Prosperity Gospel: A Critique of the Way the Bible is Used. Paper presented at the Lausanne Global Consultation on Prosperity Theology, Poverty, and the Gospel. Retrieved on 3 October 2019 from

Bailey, B., Farber, D. (2004). America in the Seventies. Kansas: Kansas University Press.

Berg, T.C. (2001). Religious Liberty in America at the End of the Century. Journal of Religion and Law, Vo. 16, No. 2, pp. 187-247.

Bowler, K. (2013). Blessed: A History of the American Prosperity Gospel. Oxford University Press.

Bryant, A. N., Choi, J. Y., & Yasuno, M. (2003). Understanding the Religious and SpiritualDimensions of Students’ Lives in the First Year of College. Journal of College Student Development, 44(6), 723-745.

Butler, J. (2004). Jack-in-the-Box Faith: The Religion Problem in Modern American History. The Journal of American History, Vol. 90, No. 4 (Mar., 2004), pp. 1357-1378

Calvin, L. S. (2010). Televangelism. Retrieved on 23 September 2019 from

Coleman, J.A. (1997). Where Have All the Members Gone? Review of The Empty Church: The Suicide of Liberal Christianity by Thomas C. Reeves. Cross Currents, Vol. 47, No. 3, Understanding Václav Havel (FALL 1997), pp. 417-419

Coleman, S. (2000). The Globalization of Charismatic Christianity: Spreading the Gospel of Prosperity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Coleman S 1993. Conservative Protestantism and the world order: the faith movement in the United States and Sweden. Sociology of Religion 54(4):353-373.

Conwell, R.H. (1968). Acres of Diamonds: Russell Conwell's inspiring Book About Opportunity. William R. Webb (Ed.). Missouri: Hallmark Editions

Copeland, K, (1989). The Force of Faith. KCP Publications.

Curry, T.J. (1989). Church and State in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century America. Journal of Religion and Law, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 261-273.

Destro, R.A. (1994). The Structure and the Religious Liberty Guarantee. Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 355-409.

Eyre, S.D. (1987). Defeating the Dragons of the-World Resisting the Seduction of false values. Downers Grove, IL: USA Inter-Varsity Press.

Gamson, W. A., & Modigliani, A. (1987). The Changing Culture of Affirmative action. In R. G. Braungart & M. M. Braungart (Eds.), Research in Political Sociology (Vol. 3, pp. 137–177). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Hadden, J.K., Swann, C. (1981). Prime Time Preachers: The Rising Power of Evangelism. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

Hall, T. D. (2008). The Many Faces of American Evangelicalism. OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 22, No. 1, American Religion (Jan., 2008), pp. 38-42

Hart, S. (1987). Privatization in American Religion and Society. Sociological Analysis, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Winter, 1987), pp. 319-33

Hamon, B. (1987). Prophets and Personal Prophecy: God’s Prophetic Voice Today. Volume 1. Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image Publishers, Inc.

Harrell, D. E. (1975). All Things Are Possible: The Healing & Charismatic Revivals in Modern America. Indiana University Press.

Hills, P.C., et.all. (2000). Conceptualizing Religion and Spirituality: Points of Commonality, Points of Departure. Journal for Theory of Social Behaviour 30:1, pp. 51-77

Hoskins, R.J. (1984). The Original Separation between Church and State in America. Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 221-239

Hunsberger, B., Alisat, S., Pancer, S.M., Pratt, M. (1996). Religious Fundamentalism and Religious Doubts: Content, Connection and Complexity of Thinking. International Journal for The Psychology of Religion. 6, 201-220.

Hunsberger, B, Lea, J., Pancer, S.M., Pratt, M., McKenzie, B. (1992). Making Life Complicated: Prompting the Use of Integratively Complex Thinking. Journal of Personality 60, 94-144.

Hunt. S. (1998). Magical moments: An Intellectualist Approach to the Neo-Pentecostal Faith Ministries. Religion 28(3), pp. 271-280.Love, P. G. (2002). Comparing Spiritual Development and Cognitive Development. Journal of College Student Development, 43(3), 357-373

Lioy, D. (2004). The Decalogue in the Sermon on the Mount. Peter Lang.

Lovekin, A., Malony, H.N. (1977). Religious Glossalia: A Longitudinal Study of Personality Changes. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 16, 383-393

Maton, K.I., Wells, E.A. (1995). Religion as Community Resource for Well Being: Prevention, Healing, and Empowerment Pathways. Journal of Social Issues, 51 (2), 177-193

McConnell, D. (1990). The Promise of Health and Wealth. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Mish, F.C. (2006). Humanism. In Merriam-Webster On Line. Accessed from

Ornella A.D. (2013) Commodification of Religion. In: Runehov A.L.C., Oviedo L. (eds) Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions. Springer, Dordrecht

Preus, J.S. (1987). Explaining Religion. New Heaven, CT: Yale University Press.

Robbins, J. (2010). Studying Global Pentecostalism: Theories and Methods. Allan Anderson (ed.). California: University of California Press.

Robins, R. G. (2010). Pentecostalism in America. ABC-CLIO.

Sarles, K. (1986). A theological evaluation of the prosperity gospel. Bibliotheca Sacra 143:329-350.

Speck, B.W. (2007). Spirituality in higher education: a literature review. In BW Speck & SL Hoppe (eds), Searching for Spirituality in Higher Education, 3-34. Peter Lang.

Stark, R. (1984). Religion and Conformity: Reaffirming of a Sociology of Religion. Sociological Analysis, 45, 273-282

Stark, R. Bainbridge, W.S. (1985). The Future of Religion. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Streib, H. Hood, R. (2011). “Spirituality” as Privatized Experience-Oriented Religion: Empirical and Conceptual Perspectives. Implicit Religion, Vo. 14, No. 4, pp. 433–453

Sundberg, W. (2000). Religious Trends in the Twentieth Century America. Word & World. Volume XX, Number 1 Winter 2000

Scheufele, D.A. (1999). Framing as Theory of Media Effects. Journal of Communication, Winter 1999, International Communication Association, 103-122

Van Biema, D. Chu, J. (2006). Does God want you to be rich? Time. Retrieved on 3 October 2019 from,9171,1533448,00.html.

Walton, J. L. (2009). Watch This! The Ethics and Aesthetics of Black Televangelism. NY: NYU Press.

Wiersbe, W.W. (1988). The Integrity Crisis. Nashville: Oliver Nelson Books

Zinsmeister, K. (1990). America During the 80s: Summing up the Reagan Era. The Wilson Quarterly (1976-) Vol. 14, No. 1 (Winter, 1990), pp. 110-117.

How to Cite
Trihastutie, N. (2019). AMERICAN TELEVANGELICAL FRAMES: RELIGIOSITY, SPIRITUALITY, AND COMMODIFICATION. Lire Journal (Journal of Linguistics and Literature), 3(2), 91-106.